The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  More than half of the world`s population lives in cities, and the New United States predicts that this percentage will reach two-thirds of humanity by 2050. As a result, the way cities are currently fighting climate change will have a direct impact on the lives of billions of euros. Because climate change is fuelling rising temperatures and extreme weather events, it is endangering our air, water and food; Widespread diseases and endangers our homes and security. We are facing a growing public health crisis. At the same time, progress in the fight against climate change has not been fast enough. Private sector leaders are increasingly recognizing that the transition from our low-carbon economy to a low-carbon economy is not only essential to limiting the adverse effects of climate change; It is also good for the company`s results. “This is certainly a blow to the Paris agreement,” said Carlos Fuller of Belize, the negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island States in the UN talks. “I don`t think anyone will follow Mr Trump from Paris,” said Peter Betts, a former negotiator for Britain and the EU in global climate negotiations and now an associate fellow at Chatham House. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.
 Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  Since the adoption of the pioneering Paris Agreement on climate change in 2015, a global dynamic has developed to deal with the climate crisis. Progress has been made on almost every front, from bold emission reduction targets for coal-fired companies and investors, to a wave of support for zero net targets, and a growing movement of ugandan youth activists to India, culminating in Greta Thunberg, which was awarded Time magazine`s “Person of the Year 2019.” The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing).